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Update: June 10, 2013

Dealing with Earthquakes Series No.8

Master First Aid

It is possible that you are not able to receive an urgent care during times of disaster such as earthquake, which involves a number of injured people at the same time. Let's learn First Aid for an emergency.

Hemostasis (Stop bleeding)

Although you may be in shock to see large amounts of blood, it is important to stay calm and stop the bleeding. Normally it is safe for adults to lose about 400ml of blood. Life becomes critical if an adult loses more than one third of the body's blood (1500ml). First, observe how much bleeding there is and from where the bleeding comes.

  • Blood is pouring out ⇒ Arterial bleeding : Stop bleeding immediately
  • Blood is welling out ⇒ Venous bleeding : Stop bleeding as soon as possible
  • Blood is oozing out

< Direct Pressure Hemostasis >

  • Cover the wound with clean gauze or cloth. Directly put pressure on the wound.
    Cover the wound with clean gauze or cloth. Directly put pressure
  • Make sure the wound is elevated above the heart.
    Make sure the wound is elevated above the heart.

< Indirect Pressure Hemostasis >

When you have the condition of blood pouring out but are not quite ready for the direct pressure hemostasis, use this method temporarily by pushing the artery closest to the heart from the bleeding area towards the bone.

  • Center of inner upper arm
    Center of inner upper arm
  • Center of underarm
    Center of underarm
  • Wrist
    Wrist
  • Both sides of finger
    Both sides of finger
  • Crotch
    Crotch

Broken Bone

  • Support the broken area with a brace and take the patient to the medical care facility.
  • If you cannot find a brace, use alternatives such as board, magazine, umbrella and cardboard.
    Broken Bone

Burn

  • Cool down the burned area under running water.
    Cool down the burned area under running water.
  • If too much water pressure exists, pour cold water into a small bucket and cool down the burned area in there.
    If too much water pressure exists, pour cold water into a small
  • If the burned area is covered by fabric, run cold water over the fabric.
    If the burned area is covered by fabric, run cold water over the
  • If a wide area is burned, use the hose or bucket to pour cold water, or wet a large clean fabric such as a sheet to cover the entire area.
    If a wide area is burned, use the hose or bucket to pour cold wa
  • If a child has widespread burns, put him or her in the bath tub with cold water (during warmer months).
    If a child has widespread burns, put him or her in the bath tub

You may face other cases where someone needs mouth-to-mouth breathing or heart massage. Learn how to give CPR through classes given by the municipal office, fire department and Japan Red Cross. Major scuba diving groups may give classes as well.

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